html-hypertext-markup-language

HTML Hypertext Markup Language second part

What is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the most basic building block of the Web. It defines the meaning and structure of web content. Other technologies besides HTML are generally used to describe a web page’s appearance/presentation (CSS) or functionality behavior

What Are HTML Tags?

Tags are used to mark up the start of an HTML element and they are usually enclosed in angle brackets. An example of a tag is: <h1>.

Most tags must be opened <h1> and closed </h1> in order to function.

What are HTML Attributes?

Attributes contain additional pieces of information. Attributes take the form of an opening tag and additional info is placed inside.

An example of an attribute is:

<img src="mydog.jpg" alt="A photo of my dog.">

In this instance, the image source (src) and the alt text (alt) are attributes of the <img> tag.

Golden Rules To Remember

  1. The vast majority of tags must be opened (<tag>) and closed (</tag>) with the element information such as a title or text resting between the tags.
  2. When using multiple tags, the tags must be closed in the order in which they were opened. For example:

    <strong><em>This is really important!</em></strong>

HTML Editors

Now that we’ve gotten the basic theory out of the way. It’s time to learn how to build our first website.

First off, we must ensure that we have the right tools. Most important, we need an HTML editor.

There are many choices on the market. Here are a handful of the most popular:

Sublime Text 3

However, for this tutorial, we will use the Sublime Text 3 as it is free and also offers cross-platform support for Windows, Mac, and Linux users.

Sublime Text 3
Sublime Text 3 has a mini-preview window on the right.

Pros

  • Easily customizable
  • Beginner-friendly
  • Pleasant color schemes to choose from.

Cons

  • Can’t print documents or code
  • No toolbar or dashboard available.

Notepad ++

Another common choice for HTML and other language coders is Notepad ++. It is a tiny program to download and perform the functions you need for writing clean code.

HTML Notepad ++
This is Notepad ++. Far from glamorous but does the job.

Pros

  • Distraction-free interface
  • Auto-completion feature
  • Plugin options for extended functionalities.

Cons

  • Can be difficult to get used to for beginners
  • No support for Mac.

Komodo Edit

Komodo Edit is one of two editors released by the same label. They offer a simple, open-source editor with a variety of extensions and language support.

It is free to download.

Komodo Editor
Komodo isn’t one for a flash interface either but is simple to use.

Pros

  • Easy-to-grasp coding interface
  • Available for Mac, Windows, and Linux
  • Impressive language support.

Cons

  • No autocompletion by default
  • Visual settings are difficult to find and change.

What To Avoid

Your code’s front-end view varies from browser to browser – you will learn more about this with advanced CSS.

Do not use Microsoft Word or any other word processor when writing HTML code, only an HTML editor or at the very least, your machine’s built-in notepad, is suitable for the task.

Secondly, ensure that you’ve installed a number of different browsers such as Chrome and Firefox in order to preview your upcoming creation.

Creating Your First HTML Webpage

First off, you need to open your HTML editor, where you will find a clean white page on which to write your code.

From there you need to layout your page with the following tags.

Basic Construction of an HTML Page

These tags should be placed underneath each other at the top of every HTML page that you create.

<!DOCTYPE html> — This tag specifies the language you will write on the page. In this case, the language is HTML 5.

<html> — This tag signals that from here on we are going to write in HTML code.

<head> — This is where all the metadata for the page goes — stuff mostly meant for search engines and other computer programs.

<body> — This is where the content of the page goes.

This is how your average HTML page is structured visually.

Further Tags

Inside the <head> tag, there is one tag that is always included: <title>, but there are others that are just as important:

<title>
This is where we insert the page name as it will appear at the top of the browser window or tab.
<meta>
This is where information about the document is stored: character encoding, name (page context), description.

Let’s try out a basic <head> section:

<head>
<title>My First Webpage</title>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="description" content="This field contains information about your page. It is usually around two sentences long.">.
<meta name="author" content="Conor Sheils">
</header>

Adding Content

Next, we will make <body> tag.

The HTML <body> is where we add the content which is designed for viewing by human eyes.

This includes text, images, tables, forms and everything else that we see on the internet each day.

How to Add HTML Headings To Your Web Page

In HTML, headings are written in the following elements:

  • <h1>
    • <h2>
      • <h3>
        • <h4>
          • <h5>
            • <h6>

As you might have guessed <h1> and <h2> should be used for the most important titles, while the remaining tags should be used for sub-headings and less important text.

Search engine bots use this order when deciphering which information is most important on a page.

Creating Your Heading

Let’s try it out. On a new line in the HTML editor, type:

<h1>Welcome to My Page</h1>

And hit save. We will save this file as “index.html” in a new folder called “my webpage.”

The Moment of Truth: Click the newly saved file and your first ever web page should open in your default browser. It may not be pretty it’s yours… all yours. *Evil laugh*

Well let’s not get carried away; we’ve still got loads of great features that we can add to your page.

How To Add Text In HTML

Adding text to our HTML page is simple using an element opened with the tag <p> which creates a new paragraph. We place all of our regular text inside the element <p>.

When we write text in HTML, we also have a number of other elements we can use to control the text or make it appear in a certain way.

Other Key Elements

They are as follows:

ElementMeaningPurpose
<b>BoldHighlight important information
<strong>StrongSimilarly to bold, to highlight key text
<i>ItalicTo denote text
<em>Emphasised TextUsually used as image captions
<mark>Marked TextHighlight the background of the text
<small>Small TextTo shrink the text
<strike>Striked Out TextTo place a horizontal line across the text
<u>Underlined TextUsed for links or text highlights
<ins>Inserted TextDisplayed with an underline to show an inserted text
<sub>Subscript TextTypographical stylistic choice
<sup>Superscript TextAnother typographical presentation style

These tags must be opened and closed around the text in question.

Let’s try it out. On a new line in the HTML editor, type the following HTML code:

<p>Welcome to <em>my</em> brand new website. This site will be my <strong>new<strong> home on the web.</p>

Don’t forget to hit save and then refresh the page in your browser to see the results.

How To Add Links In HTML

As you may have noticed, the internet is made up of lots of links.

Almost everything you click on while surfing the web is a link takes you to another page within the website you are visiting or to an external site.

Links are included in an attribute opened by the <a> tag. This element is the first that we’ve met which uses an attribute and so it looks different to previously mentioned tags.

The Anchor Tag

The <a> (or anchor) opening tag is written in the format:

<a href="https://blogging.com/how-to-start-a-blog/">Your Link Text Here </a>

The first part of the attribute points to the page that will open once the link is clicked.

Meanwhile, the second part of the attribute contains the text which will be displayed to a visitor in order to entice them to click on that link.

If you are building your own website then you will most likely host all of your pages on professional web hosting. In this case, internal links on your website will <a href=”mylinkedpage.html”>Linktle Here</a>.

Let’s Create An Anchor Tag

Let’s try it out. Make a duplicate of the code from your current index.html page. Copy / paste it into a new window in your HTML editor.

Save this new page as “page2.html” and ensure that it is saved in the same folder as your index.html page.

On page2.html add the following code:

<a href="http://www.google.com">Google</a>

This will create a link to Google on page 2. Hit save and return to your index.html page.

On a new line on index.html add the following code:

<a href="*folder(s)*/page2.html">Page2</a>

Ensure the folder path to the file (page2.html) is correct. Hit save and preview index.html in your browser.

If everything is correct then you will see a link which will take you to your second page. On the second page, there will be a link that will take you to google.com.

How To Add Images In HTML To Your Website

In today’s modern digital world, images are everything. The <img> tag has everything you need to display images on your site. Much like the <a> anchor element, <img> also contains an attribute.

The attribute features information for your computer regarding the sourceheightwidth and alt text of the image.

Styling and Formats
Image Property
You can check the file type of an image by right-clicking the item and selecting ‘Properties’.

You can also define borders and other styles around the image using the class attribute. However, we shall cover this in a later tutorial.

The file types generally used for image files online are: .jpg, .png, and (less and less) .gif.

HTML Hypertext Markup Language

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